The rat is surprisingly intelligent. You will only need show them the path to get round a complex maze once. They will accurately remember the route and easily find their direction home under their own direction next time.
People are often surprised at their communication ability. They are able to talk to each other by vibrating their eyes. Sounds painful to me. They can indicate their feelings with their tails and by chattering the teeth together.
These abilities enable them to form strong friendships and lasting social groups. This extends to human beings also, with whom they form bonds. In this way they make excellent pets.
It can take some time to train them and the best way to do this is to handle them for long periods, several times a day, from birth. If you tame your rat you might be able to teach it some tricks. It is a good idea to rattle a box with treats in whenever you approach the cage. If you give them a treat whenever you go to see them they will associate you with happiness and this will make them easier to train and tame.
Rats love eating similar food as people but pet shops provide some great rat foods. They provide all the necessary nutrients, vitamins and minerals a growing rat needs to be healthy and happy. It is important, however for you to provide them with occasional pieces of fresh vegetables and fruit for variety and vitamins. Rats love apple, carrot, pepper, banana and pear. Cut up a few pieces and keep them in a box in the fridge so you always have a piece handy when you go to see them.
It's also highly important to give your pet rats a very hard seed bar to chew on to help them grind their long teeth down. Their long incisors don't stop growing throughout their little lives, meaning they need to work hard to keep them short.
If you don't give them something to grind their teeth down. on they could end up growing painfully long.